Equity marketplaces are increasingly seen as important sources of investment money in many rising economies. Furthermore, many countries start to see the development of such markets as a means to help both foreign collateral profile investment and international direct investment (FDI). This might take place through the acquisition of shareholdings in domestic companies, which supplements the reduced levels of funding from domestic savings.
But many emerging stock markets show substantial risk premia that boosts the expense of equity for detailed domestic companies and deters potential international investors. This paper estimates the cost of equity in four major African markets: South Africa, Kenya, Egypt, and Morocco. These represent the biggest & most developed equity markets in Africa and also act as regional hub markets. London is also included as a connection between the growing and developed financial marketplaces. Fama, E., & French, K. (1993). Common risk factors in the profits on bonds and stocks.
African financial markets. The results show that the premia associated with size are more frequent than with liquidity although both are highly significant in both valuation and cost of equity estimates. The evidence suggests that the cheapest cost of collateral is achieved in the two major international markets of London and Johannesburg, as the less-advanced North African markets of Morocco and Egypt have higher costs of equity. The developing Kenyan market gets the highest cost of equity, although the expenses associated with the main market are less than one-third of that in the Alternative Investment Market.
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The most significant feature of the new contract is that anyone living a comfortable life in India by defaulting on Nepali taxes in the past can now be taken to the book. Nepali tax authorities can obtain assistance of Indian authorities to collect any revenue promises, not just income tax, from a person residing in India whose taxes are due in Nepal. If the request is so made the Indian regulators use the powers as per their law as though they were collecting their own taxes in arrears. If there is a request from the Indian aspect, Nepali regulators will reciprocate.